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展宽角对楔横轧4Cr9Si2气门成形质量的影响

 

     4Cr9Si2是一种马氏体耐热钢,铬的质量分数达到9%左右,硅质量分数达到2%~3%,其加工硬化率比较大,是一种比较难成形的高合金钢。一般4Cr9Si2 马氏体耐热钢用于制造汽车发动机的进气门和排气门杆部。传统气门制坯的方法主要为电热镦粗和热挤压,存在着效率低、废品率高及模具损坏严重等缺陷。随着汽车工业的发展,对汽车气门的需求量也越来越大,北京科技大学零件轧制中心提出了一种新的气门制坯方法-楔横轧制。

  北京科技大学的学者借助刚塑性有限元DEFORM-3D对4Cr9Si2马氏体耐热钢楔横轧成形过程进行了数值模拟,分析了展宽角对楔横轧轧件成形缺陷的影响规律。在楔横轧轧制刚楔入时,轧件的心部受到三向拉应力的作用;展宽角减小,轧件在楔入段时三向拉应力最大值和持续时间增大,使心部缺陷产生的可能性增加;而展宽角减小,金属轴向流动速度加快,使得对称中心在楔入段完成后的直径减小,而轴向力则随着展宽角减小,其数值还有一定的增大,最终将导致对称中心横截面拉细状况的产生;随着展宽角增大,表面螺旋痕将会增加,但展宽角对表面螺旋痕的影响不明显。通过实验验证了有限元的正确性和模拟结果的可靠性。

 
 

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